TCP/IP stands for the 'Transport Control Protocol / Internet Protocol'
suite. TCP/IP was created in 1983 to replace NCP. The advantage
of TCP/IP is it's versitility. It can successfully switch packets
of all shapes and sizes, and work across a varieties of networks.
TCP/IP has become the backbone of the Internet and its composite
LANs and WANs. As already stated, it is due to it's ability to switch
packets from any computer systems, regardless of network peculiarities,
operating system differences and other packet differences.
The TCP/IP protocol suite refers to several separate protocols
that computers use to transfer data across the Internet. Listed
below are four of the most commonly used TCP/IP protocols,
Components of TCP/IP
- IP - The Internet Protocol is a network layer protocol
that moves data between host computers.
- TCP - The Transport Control Protocol is a transport layer
protocol that moves multiple packet data between applications.
- UDP - The User Datagram Protocol is a transport layer
protocol like TCP but is less complex and reliable than TCP.
- ICMP - The Internet Control Message Protocol carries
network error messages and other network software requirements.
Computer networks use a standard connection model which is called
ISO/OSI. The ISO/OSI model has seven layer which the TCP/IP protocol
suite has implemented, below is a list of the ISO/OSI layers and
the TCP/IP counterpart layers,
file transfers, email, file servers
data formatting, encryption
negotiation and establishment of a connection
end to end data provision
routing of packets
transfer of addressable units of frames and error checking
transmission of binary data over a communications network
TFTP, BOOTP, SNMP, FTP, SMTP, MIME
IP, ICMP, RIP, OSPF, BGP, IGMP
SLIP, CSLIP, PPP, ARP, RASP, MTU
ISO, 2110, IEEE, 802, IEEE 802.2
FTP, a protocol
for downloading files.