While it is possible to access the Internet at a number of public
locations: hotspots, kiosks, libraries, schools, universities, hotels,
airports, train stations etc; for the domestic home user the primary
- for the vast majority the only option - way to access the Internet
is through an Internet Service Provider.
The Internet is a system of interconnected computer
networks that use the Internet protocol suite. The computer
networks within the Internet form a hierarchy; with the important
computer networks referred to as backbone networks: which means
they control the Internet's primary data routes. The Internet's
backbone networks tend to be large telecommunications companies;
these networks are also referred to as tier 1 networks.
These tier 1 networks - through peering agreements with one another
- do not have to pay to transit data across each other's networks.
Below tier 1 networks there are tier 2 and tier 3 networks: the
majority of Internet Service Providers are tier 2 and tier 3 networks.
Tier 2 and tier 3 networks have to pay the tier 1 networks to transit
data across their networks. Below tier 2 and tier 3 networks is
the end-user; likewise the end-user (member of the general public)
has to pay the tier 2 and tier 3 to transit data across their networks.
Therefore, it should become clear, that unless an end-user owns
a tier 1 network (highly unlikely) they will have to pay for access
to the Internet (specifically to transfer data across the networks
which comprise the Internet). The computer networks which sell access
- to the general public - to the Internet are called Internet Service
Providers (ISP). ISPs vary in their scope: some offer a range of
technologies to access the Internet, whereas others offer one. Some
ISPs do not own a network infrastructure, but rent it from another
ISP: they are simple a third party reseller, known as a Virtual
Internet Service Provider.
Types of ISP
At present (2014), the most common type of access technologies
provided by UK Internet Service Providers are: DSL (broadband),
cable (broadband), fiber optic (broadband), satellite, dial-up,
mobile, dedicated interconnects or a wireless connection (mobile
networks). By far the most popular technology is broadband provided
through a landline. While the DSL technology is currently the most
popular access technology - because it can be implemented on traditional
copper line networks - "superfast"
fiber optic networks are currently (2014) being laid across the
UK. Fiber optic networks provide the most reliable and fastest download
and upload speed.
Once an account and access technology has been chosen by a user,
the ISP then has to activate the service. With dialup and mobile
access, a user can typically begin using their account immediately.
With broadband, it may take upto 12 days (in the UK) for an ISP
to activate the service on a
landline telephone network. The speed with which a user can download
and upload data tends to be limited by where the user lives. The
further away from the telephone network exchange (especially for
dialup and dsl) the slower the speed of the connection. ISP's usually
stipulate a 'bandwidth limit' for accounts:
which means that a user can upload or download a specific amount
of data per month.
Hierarchy of ISPs
As already stated, ISPs are categorised into a range of tiers;
the top being a 'Tier 1' carrier (network). The typical definition
of a 'Tier 1' carrier (network) is that they do not have to pay
for 'transit' of data. Tier 1 status is very desirable, because
the ISP does not have to pay another ISP (further up the "food
chain") to access the Internet. Tier 2 carriers need to purchase
upstream access/transit from Tier 1 carriers. At the "bottom"
are virtual ISPs, who buy all their
infrastructure and services from another ISP.
Tier 1 carriers tend to be located in the US (where the Internet
was originally developed). As an end user, it is extremely complex
to decipher which ISP is at which tier; but it's commonly believed
that AT&T, Qwest and Sprint are Tier 1 carriers; amongst others.
The majority of national telecommunications companies in Europe
are not Tier 1 carriers, such as: BT and France Telecom; who are
believed to buy their upstream IP access (transit) from the Sprint
BT Wholesale (who created a little
"stir" with content connect)
supports and fixes most of the landline infrastructure issues for
Choosing an ISP
The UK has a wide selection of Internet Service Providers; which
all differ in the connection packages they offer. When choosing
an ISP, a customer should consider:
- How much it costs each month.
- The cost of support if things go wrong (telephone rate).
- Connection speed. (baud rate and ping
are also worth examining)
- Online support and features.
- Their bandwidth and fair usage terms.
If you are dissatisfied with your current ISP, and wish to switch
broadband providers, then the easiest way to do so is by using a
The majority of large ISP's (BT, Sky, Virgin)
have signed up to Migration Authorisation Code system. The MAC system
allows users to switch ISP without losing access to the Internet;
the MAC system seamlessly switches ISPs. There are plenty of websites
which provide a comparison service
While the vast majority (estimated to be 95%) of UK Internet users
are termed "light" users, there is 5% who use a considerable
amount of bandwidth (downloaded/uploaded data). To combat the usage
habits of this 5%, ISPs usually have a 'fair usage policy': which
means, once a user downloads a certain amount of data per month,
their access will either be cut or throttled. Throttling is where
an ISPs imposes a low download/upload speed to a specific account.
ISPs have come under criticism from parents and parental groups
for the lack of "controls" they put in place to stop children
from viewing content they should not. That said, a number of ISPs,
most notable AOL, have attempted to create 'walled
gardens' to protect children and give parents a measure of control.
How ISPs are Evolving (UK)
Broadband overtook dial-up (May 2005) as the most popular technology
used to access the Internet (in the UK). Broadband usage nearly
doubled to 8.1 million: from January the 1st (2005) to June the
30th (2005). As already stated, Dialup was previously the most popular
access technology. The drawback to dialup is it's download speed:
limited to 56k; and it monopolises the telephone line. The "basic"
download speed of broadband should be 256K (10 times faster than
dialup), and is capable of 24Mb (480 times faster than dialup).
Broadband is a generic term that can refer to a number of technologies:
dsl, fiber optic, cable and mobile. However, Broadband should have
a minimum download speed of 256k, and should be capable of supporting
The drawback to broadband is it's coverage, from 2000-2013 many
rural areas in the UK did not have access to it. This led a 'prospective'
Conservative government to promise (in 2009) a nationwide superfast
broadband network; with a speed of 100Mbit/s to most homes by 2017.
In 2009, ISPs could not "promise" a download speed of
2Mbit/s to every home (the BCS took an interest
in whether this ambitious plan could be achieved). The Conservative
party eventually formed a coalition government in 2010.
In 2012, an organisation was formed called Broadband Delivery
UK (BDUK): The ambition of BDUK was two-fold (by 2015):
- Provide superfast broadband to 90% of homes in the UK.
- Universal access to standard broadband (download speed of 2Mbps).
You may be wondering what is the difference between superfast broadband
and standard broadband. In the UK, standard broadband usually refers
to the DSL technology; which is a technology that works on the traditional
copper line network. Superfast broadband refers to fiber optic networks;
fiber optic is a glass/plastic cable that is superior to copper
cable in a number of ways. Fiber optic is: more reliable; lasts
longer; carries more data; more data over long distances; does not
corrode; electromagnetic interference does not occur; and is resistant
to crosstalk. In the UK, fiber optic networks come in two types;
FTTC (overlaid on the copper network) and FTTP (pure fiber optic).
FTTP is superior.
ISPs: What can be found on the Internet
The most popular services are: Email, Newsgoups
(Usenet), Online Gaming, Voice and
Video communication, and the
World Wide Web. What is available on the Internet may expand with
the possible development of quantum
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